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Hydraulic Binders In A Nutshell: The Basics Of Concrete Solutions

Hydraulic lime is a moderate calcination product of marly limestone containing from 6 to 20% of clay impurities. Normal calcination temperature ranges from 900 to 1,100°C, depending on the feed composition. The product is comprised not only of free lime, but also from chemical compounds with oxides of clay: silicate 2CaO • Si02, aluminates 2CaO • AOz, ferrites 2CaO • BegOz calcium. Like the air lime this product represents lump hydraulic lime, which is subjected to grinding mills to produce fine ground quicklime. Yet there is another production option: lump is slaked and unslaked particles (silicates, aluminates and ferrites) are subjected to further grinding followed by mixing and slaking the unslaked parts.

When interacting with water silicates and aluminates remain virtually non-hydrated. Only when this extinction of lime in the dough gradually formed silicate and calcium hydro-aluminates, accompanied by swelling of the compounds and their transition into the jelly state. Depending on the content of calcium oxide in the lime with respect to the amount of silica, sesqui oxides of aluminum and iron can be divided into strongly-hydraulic and weakly-hydraulic.

Currently, the use of hydraulic lime is quite limited – for mortars and concretes of low strength, for laying in damp areas (basements, canals) in low-rise buildings, and others. It is not manufactured now the novel cement – hydraulic binder, gets crushed into a fine moderately burnt powder (not before sintering) lime or magnesia in the marl clay content in these impurities to 25-35%. This kind of cement is completely replaced by more advanced portland cements.

A true to the type portland cement product represents fine grinding of clinker, the resulting uniform roasting before sintering of natural raw materials (marl) or artificial homogeneous raw material mixture defined by composition containing limestone and clay. In the process of grinding the clinker gypsum added in an amount up to 3.5% (based on sulfuric anhydrite). It is possible to partially replace the feed mixture with blast furnace slag or nepheline sludge, if the necessary raw material retains the calculated composition.

The natural minerals in the form of lime marl are rare, so massive construction and design experts, like a UK-based Telling Company, massively utilising hydraulic lime and lime mortar solutions, oftentimes have to rely mainly on synthetic raw mixtures. As noted, they are compiled with the help of rocks with a high content of calcium carbonate (limestone net, chalk, lime tuff, marl limestone, etc.) and species belonging to the aluminous feedstock (heavy clay, marl clay, shale, etc.). Based on the chemical composition of the raw mixture and the desired characteristics calculated clinker composition ratio between its components with the greatest possible precision. Type of raw materials is reflected in the choice of equipment necessary for its preparation, roasting and grinding calcine with additives and its processing to the state the smallest homogeneous powder – portland cement.

 

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The Power Of Brands In Information Society

Currently, many aspiring businesses collide with the problem of improper perception of the brand. With these views, a brand is considered to be a thing that leads to commercial viability. However, in the 21st century the power of the brand is its impact on consumers may excite and create a desire to possess it, the fact that a professionals keeps in mind.

Ideally, brand should excite people, give them confidence in the quality and prestige of the proposed service or product. The strength of this brand gives a customer a sense of improvement, prosperity and superiority. People enjoy the thought that they possess some plaything by Apple or Alienware. Creating such sensation among consumers is the basic strategy of brand promotion using its strength.

The 21st century branding

The motto of modern branding: ‘brand is built around relationships, rather than around products’. A quintessence of the brand vitality, as stated by HTP digital marketing Manchester firm IT Executive, Vytas Klimavicus. This gives an indication that the direction of the development of modern branding is a transferring physical and commercial aspects to psychological area. That’s why the value of life is getting increasingly symbolized with brands. Continue reading “The Power Of Brands In Information Society”

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Intellectual property as a scientific and technical progress factor

Intellectual property encompasses all aspects of human activity and plays a significant role in the development of human society. Here is a characteristic statement of president of semiconductor Texas Instruments Company, William Pat Weber: ‘In essence, protection of intellectual property is an imperative for the survival of both large and small companies, as well as for the development of next-generation technologies’.

Protection of intellectual property is like a sentry at the entrance to the building of scientific and technological progress. Without it, none of the companies can be sure it will be able to protect their inventions from the violators. With it, companies are able to achieve a fair and adequate return on their investment by eliminating competitors from the market, or by receiving royalties from those who use their patented technologies. A key factor in this scheme is that an income from both these articles generate dollars that can be reinvested in research and development of tomorrow. The most important widely spread intellectual property entity is traditionally considered to be the invention.

Thus, e.g. patents in synthetic biology or pharmaceutical industry enables the company to conduct further costly research to obtain new substances, materials, pharmaceuticals. Not accidently educational and research institutions pay special attention to these aspects. E.g. The University of Manchester has established a UMIP that concentrates only on intellectual property field only. At the present time digitalisation of various experiences becomes an inevitable part of technogenic world: biotechnology developments in digital information, software, web services and etc.

The tree of intellectual property is growing and developing in various fields of creativity. A key figure in the creative process is a scientist, engineer, inventor; while protection of intellectual property is only aiming at protecting the interests of legal entities and individuals that contribute to the development of scientific and technical progress.

Basic protection system results of creative activity

Copyright and patent law constitute two basic systems of protection of the results of creative activity. The term copyright should not be confused with the term ‘author’s rights’. The objects of copyright are works of literature, art, science, and the subject of patent rights covers primarily inventions, utility models, industrial designs, trademarks. Patent law provides protection and provides: Applying for the title of protection in the State Patent Office; An examination of the criteria established by the legislation; The issuance of a title protection on behalf of the state.

The patent protects the essence of the solution. For example, as of inventions and utility models designs are protected the very essence of the technical solution.

Patent protection is only valid on the territory of the State that issued the patent, or in the territory of the region in case of regional patents. It has fairly strict limits on the period of validity. For example, the patent is valid for a maximum of twenty years in many countries.

 

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Lifting Equipment: Specs & Feasibility

In general, a protozoan lifting system stands for mechanism of designed for cyclic operation and used for lifting and moving cargo over short distances within a certain area. Lifting machines vary greatly according to the principles of action, purpose, performance, configuration serviced area and etc..

The most common type is the general purpose machines: with universal constructions, they are designed to perform only lifting and transport operations. In particular, such mechanism typically features a self-propelled crawler and mobile crane for general use. Perhaps, the main advantage over other types of cranes lies in its high mobility: ability to quickly move the lifting device from one place to another, install the lifting platform on almost any soil foundation without significant training; compactness usually complements the list of benefits. The obvious advantages look not that brilliant – limited load capacity and too compact dimensions.

Self-propelled cranes with a special truck-mounted chassis is designed for construction, installation, handling, emergency – rehabilitation works on the dispersed objects.

Typically such machines’ hooks are mounted on the telescopic shaft length of 10.6 m to 36.7 m; auxiliary hook can be used as an extension (9.5m or 16m). The crane functioning with the load characteristics is allowed only with the use of the outriggers.

Truck-based lifting machine can be packed with a tower-shaft mechanism and can operate under a certain load or without it, without requiring special balancing mechanisms as stability is provided by gravity. Truck crane is the most common type of mobile jib cranes. The truck cranes are built basing on the mass-produced chassis of trucks with the installation of the frame front and rear outriggers for stability during operating. Their weak points are poor ability to move across offroads and gradeability of up to 25° only.

The strongest suit of mobile cranes is their high mobility, which allows them moving quickly to remote objects. When transporting by rail re-mounting is not required, since they fit into the size of rail transport.

Here are the main types of truck cranes:

  • Trucks with telescopic boom and rigid suspension.
  • Trucks with stack boom with flexible suspension.
  • Tower-boom trucks.
  • Trucks with booms featuring jib.

The systems may be upgraded with extension sections (inserts) or drawers with telescopic lengthened booms and jib booms. Modern lifting devices are taken advantage of in construction and installation sites, in handling, energy construction, they are mainly used for loading and unloading, and as auxiliary crane for assembly operations at zero and minus marks.

The economical feasibility is among the first factors having a direct impact on making the choice in favour of this equipment. Thus, Granada Material Handling, a top UK league industry representative, specialized in lifting equipment inspection and lifting equipment services, claims an average system used on railway junctions pays for itself within the first to years of exploitation. Giving the pace of logistics development, lifting equipment usage gains momentum steadily and consistently, providing companies like GMBH with an opportunity to look beyond domestic market.

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Making The Most Of The Ultrasonic Cleaning

Ultrasound boasts a multifactorial effect, so its application can significantly accelerate any of the cleaning methods and improve the quality of final results. Alternating pressure fluctuations of fluid particles and acoustic phenomena, the ‘sonic wind’, cavitation and ultrasonic capillary effect offer unparalleled efficiency.

The nature of the effect

The primary energy role is played by cavitation. During the collapse of the cavitation bubbles microstreams are formed and cumulative fluid velocity reaches a hundred meters per second, towards the surface to be cleaned. Under the influence of shock waves and high-speed microstreams an intensive film degradation of impurities (solid or liquid types) and its separation from the surface takes place. Cavitation provides intensive ultrasound emulsification of liquid and ultrasonic dispersion of separated solid contaminats.

Due to acoustic streaming is provided by removal of the boundary layer solution or destroyed under the influence of cavitation in the volume of fluid contamination. A particularly important role is played by acoustic streaming in removing soluble contaminants.

Cleaning efficiency increases when the surface to be treated to the emitter is reduced. However, placing the product to the emitter in less than 1-2 mm is impractical because at small gaps between the transmitter and the surface conditions remove contaminants from the boundary layer and decreases the activity of cavitation due to changes in the collapse scheme of cavitation bubbles.

The benefits

The advantage of ultrasonic cleaning is not only an ability to achieve high-quality cleaning test surface from a wide variety of contaminants, but also to remove impurities from the capillary cavity defect. The most effective use of ultrasound is the mode that provides an emergence of ultrasonic capillary effect. The mode contributes to reagent capillaries filling to a greater depth and a greater rate. In addition, significantly accelerates the diffusion of dissolved gas to the mouth of the defect; dissolution of contaminants presents in the cavity of the defect; the diffusion of impurities to its mouth. As a result, accelerates the process of filling voids and defects in general and increases the depth of penetration of the working fluid in the blind capillary channels. The mode is supported in neoteric equipment, such as Hilsonic – a seasoned UK-based business, focusing its effort on studying ultrasound and producing an impressive line-up of ultrasonic cleaner devices.

The use of ultrasound for cleaning can significantly improve quality control. Thus discontinuities are cleaned to a sufficient depth not only in case of liquids, but also such contaminants sparingly as polishing paste. As a result, the number of identified traces close to the total number of defects is taken into account. The use as a detergent liquid water and aqueous solutions of glycerol and a dispersing agent for cleaning in an ultrasonic field is more effective than the use of solvents such as acetone or benzene. This is due to greater activity of acoustic cavitation in water and aqueous solutions than in acetone and petrol. The use of ultrasound allows solving the problem of replacing explosive, environmental hazards to more environment-friendly materials.